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What is Modules in Python? tccicomputercoaching.com

In programming, a module is a piece of software that has a specific functionality.

For example, when developing a big task, one module would be responsible for the one task, and another module would be responsible for another task. Each module is a different file, which can be edited separately.

modules in python

Modules in Python are simply Python files with a .py extension. The name of the module will be the name of the file. A Python module can have a set of functions, classes or variables defined and implemented.

Python is most popular programming Language in Developers.

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What is JSF? tccicomputercoaching.com

Java Server Faces (JSF) is a Java-based web application framework intended to simplify development integration of web-based user interfaces.

1

Java Server Faces is a standardized display technology, which was formalized in a specification through the Java Community Process.

java server faces

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What is Java Bean in Java? tccicomputercoaching.com

Java Bean is a normal Java class which has private properties with its public getter and setter method. Java Beans are generally used as helper class. Example – public class User implements java. io. Serializable {private String name; private Integer age; public String getName(){ return this.

java bean in java

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What is difference between friend function and friend class? tccicomputercoaching.com

The Friend function and friend class in C++ are the techniques used to access the private members of a class by using friend keyword.

Difference:

Friend function is a function used with a friend keyword to grant a non-member function access to the private members of a class.

Friend class is a class used with a friend keyword to access the private members of another class.

friend function vs class

Use:

A friend function can be used in some situation of operator overloading.

A friend class can be used when a class is created on the top of another class.

The first condition is that friend function is not inherited by a child class. The second condition is that storage class specifier may not be present in friend function, which means that it cannot be declared as static and extern.

The friend class can be declared in more than a single class. It is considered as a short alternative method for friend function because with the help of this we can create a friend class which can access the whole data members and function instead of creating multiple friend functions.

A friend function is required when a function needs to access two or more independent classes, internal members. On the other hand, a friend class is needed when a class requires accessing the members of another class. When a multiple member function needs to be a friend of that function, in that case, it is better to use friend class.

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Why do we need default constructor? tccicomputercoaching.com


Constructor 
is used to initialize an object. In other words, constructor provides memory to an object. Without initializing an object we can’t use its properties.

But there is no need to define or declare a default constructor in Java.The compiler implicitly adds a default constructor in the program if we have not declared or defined it.

default construcrtor

Example-

class Experiment

{

int a=10;

int b=20;

public static void main(String[] argus)

{

Experiment e=new Experiment(); //default constructor//

}

}

The only purpose of the constructor is to set a variable’s default value, which will be zero anyway. This default constructor will be implicitly declared and created by the compiler.

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What is the difference between Bufferreader and InputstreamReader in Java? tccicomputercoaching.com

BufferedReader and InputStreamReader are both Input Function in Java File.

BufferedReader reads a couple of characters from the specified stream and stores it in a buffer. This makes input faster.

InputStreamReader reads only one character from specified stream and remaining characters still remain in the stream.

bufferreader vs inputstreamreader

Example:

1. class NewClass{

2. public static void main(String args[]) throws InterruptedException, IOException

3. {

4. BufferedReader isr = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader(System.in));

5. Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);

6. System.out.println(“B.R. – “+(char)isr.read());

7. System.out.println(“Scanner – ” + sc.nextLine());

8. }

9. }

When the isr.read() statement is executed, I entered the input ”hello” and the character “h” of “hello” is printed on the screen. If this was InputStreamReader then the remaining characters “ello” would have remained in the System.in stream and the sc.nextLine() would have printed them. But in this case it doesn’t happens because the BufferedReader reads all of the “hello” characters from the System. in stream and stores them in its own personal buffer and thus the System. In stream remains empty when sc.nextLine() is executed.

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What is macro in c? tccicomputercoaching.com

Macro processor that is used automatically by the compiler to transform your program before actual compilation. It is called a macro processor because it allows you to define macros, which are brief abbreviations for longer constructs.

A macro is a segment of code which is replaced by the value of macro. Macro is defined by #define directive.

macro in c

Macros in C are string replacements commonly used to define constants.

The function-like macro looks like function call. For example:

For example:-

1. #define MAX 1000

It sets the value of identifier MAX to 1000 and whenever you want to use 1000 in your program you can use MAX instead of writing 1000.

2. Argumented macro substitution (this permits us to define more complex and more useful forms of replacements):-

It takes the form:-

#define identifier (f1, f2,.., fn) string

For example, #define CUBE(x) (x*x*x)

If the following statement appear in the prog.-

Volume = CUBE (side);

Then the pre-processor will expand this statement to:

Volume = (side*side*side);

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