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What is Swing in Java?- tccicomputercoaching.com

Swing is a set of program components for Java programmers that provide the ability
to create graphical user interface (GUI) components, such as buttons and scroll bars that are independent of the windowing system for specific operating system.

Swing-java-tcci

We use Java Swing for our GUI development. It’s a lot more powerful than the original AWT, and the price is right. In particular, we try to use the “Bean format” of setting and getting members, call-backs to notify of changes, etc, to make it easier to build applications from JMRI components.

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Function in C Language – tccicomputercoaching.com

There are 2 types of function in C Language:

a. Built in Function:

This is predefined by Language. Means already written, compiled and tested and stored in c library files.

User just used them in programme.

Function-c-language-simple

b. User Defined Function:

This function is developed by user at a time during coding. They are not stored in any file.

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What is Abstract class and abstract Method in Java -tccicomputercoaching.com


Abstract
means something, which is in thoughts but not it exists in reality. It is like that we know that what should be done, but we don’t know how it would be done.

Take an example, there is a ‘Shape’ class which contains a method ‘area()’ but we cannot implement area() method here as we do not know what will be the shape(a square, a rectangle, a triangle or any other shape) in future. In that case, we will declare area() in the Shape class and will implement the same method in our subclasses as per the requirement.

Abstract class & Method in Java_simple

Example:

1. public abstract class Shape

2. {

3.       public abstract void area(int var); // Abstract method

4. }

6. public class Circle extends Shape

7. {

8.      int radius;

9.      double pi=3.14;

10.    public void area(int var)

11.      {

12.         radius=var;

13.         System.out.println(“Arear of Circle: “+(pi*radius*radius));

14.       }

15.   }

16. public class Square extends Shape

17.  {

18.    int side;

19.    public void area(int var)

20.      {

21.         side=var;

22.         System.out.println(“Area of Square: “+side*side);

23.      }

24. }

25. public class Result

26. {

27.       public static void main(String[] args)

28.         {

29.             Shape obj=new Square();

30.             obj.area(4);

32.             Shape obj1=new Circle();

33.             obj1.area(3);

34.          }

35. }

In JAVA, Abstraction can be achieved using the abstract class, abstract methods, and interface. Using the abstract class we can achieve the different level of abstraction, but using the interfaces we can achieve 100% abstraction.

Abstract Class:

1. An abstract class would be declared using ‘abstract’ keyword.

2. Creation of object is not possible of an abstract class.

3. It may contain data members, methods, abstract methods, constructors.

4. Data members can’t be abstract.

5. It must be inherited by the subclass(es) using ‘extends’ keyword.

6. The subclass should implement each and every abstract method declared in Super Class. Otherwise, subclass would act like abstract class which needs to be extended further.

Abstract Method:

1. An abstract method can be placed within an abstract Class only.

2. It would be declared using ‘abstract’

3. The abstract method should be declared only without any implementation

4. It can be implemented only in the subclass(concrete class) using ‘extends’ or ‘implements’.

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What is Inner class in Java? – tccicomputercoaching.com

Inner class means one class inside another class or we can say that one class is member of another class.

java-inner-class

Such class is known as nested class.

Syntax:

class OuterClass {

// …

class NestedClass {

// …

}

}

How to access inner class?

To access the inner class, create an object of the outer class, and then create an object of the inner class.

There are basically four types of inner classes in java.

1) Nested Inner class
2) Method Local inner classes
3) Anonymous inner classes
4) Static nested classes

The nested class makes code more readable and maintainable because there are group’s of related classes.

To learn more in detail about Java Nested Class.

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Why there is no switch statement in python? – tccicomputercoaching.com

Switch case is a powerful decision-making construct commonly used in modular programming.

Unlike other programming languages, Python doesn’t provide a switch case instrument over the self.

Switch-statement-in-python_Simple

However, it has many other constructs like a dictionary, lambda function, and classes to write a custom implementation of the Python switch case statement.

One example of Switch in Python :

Here, we define a function week() to tell us which day a certain day of the week is. A switcher is a dictionary that performs this mapping.

1

As you can see, for values other than the ones we mention in the switcher, it prints out “Invalid day of week”. This is because we tell it to do so using the get() method of a dictionary.

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Python Constructor-TCCI-tccicomputercoachig.com

Python Constructors

A constructor is a special type of method (function) which is used to initialize the instance members of the class.

Python-Constructor_simple

2 Types of Constructor

1.parameterized 2. non-parameterized

Constructor definition executes when we create object of the class. Constructors also verify that there are enough resources for the object to perform any start-up task.

Destructor

Destructors are called when an object gets destroyed. It’s the polar opposite of the constructor, which gets called on creation.

These methods are only called on creation and destruction of the object. They are not called manually but completely automatic.

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