Microsoft Office Excel

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, Mac OS X, Android and iOS. It structures calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications, which makes work easy for employees in companies.

Microsoft Excel is in form of grid, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations.

In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It also contains different formula function like maths, logical, text, date-Time, Financial etc…….

Short cut keys for Excel:


Alt key press:

To display a tab on the Ribbon, press the key for the tab—for example, press the letter N for the Insert tab or M for the Formulas tab. This makes all the Key Tip badges for that tab’s buttons appear. Then, press the key for the button you want.

To get to the Ribbon, press Alt, and then, to move between tabs, use the Right Arrow and Left Arrow keys.

To hide the Ribbon so you have more room to work, press Ctrl+F1. Repeat to display the Ribbon again.

Go to the access keys for the Ribbon

To go directly to a tab on the Ribbon, press one of the following access keys:

To do this Press
Open the Tell me box on the Ribbon and type a search term for assistance or Help content. Alt+Q, and then enter the search term.
Open the File page and use Backstage view. Alt+F
Open the Home tab and format text and numbers and use the Find tool. Alt+H
Open the Insert tab and insert PivotTables, charts, add-ins, Sparklines, pictures, shapes, headers, or text boxes. Alt+N
Open the Page Layout tab and work with themes, page setup, scale, and alignment. Alt+P
Open the Formulas tab and insert, trace, and customize functions and calculations. Alt+M
Open the Data tab and connect to, sort, filter, analyze, and work with data. Alt+A
Open the Review tab and check spelling, add comments, and protect sheets and workbooks. Alt+R
Open the View tab and preview page breaks and layouts, show and hide gridlines and headings, set zoom magnification, manage windows and panes, and view macros. Alt+W

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User Defined Function in C

What is User Defined Function?

A User Defined Function is a block of code developed by user to perform specific task.

Using user Defined Function we can divide a complex problem into smaller modules. So we can decrease complexity and lengthy.

C allows programmer to define functions according to their need. These functions are known as user-defined functions. For example:

Suppose, a program which includes addition, subtraction, division and multiplication of two numbers in same program. You can create user defined functions for each operation individually to solve this problem:

For example,

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

Void add(int, int); // function prototype

Void sub (int, int); // function prototype

Void mul (int, int); // function prototype

Void div (int, int); // function prototype

void main ()



            printf(“enter the value of a and b);

            scanf(“%d %d”,&a,&b);

            clrscr ();

            add (a,b);

            sub (a,b);

            mul (a,b);

            div (a,b);


Void add (int x,int y)


            Int c;




void sub ()


Int c;


            printf (“sub=%d”,c)


Void mul ()


            int c;

            C=x *y;

            printf (“%d”, c)


Void div ()


            int c;




User Defined Function has 3 sections:

Function Prototype

Function Call

Function Definition

Function prototype:

Syntax of function prototype :

returnTypefunctionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2,…);

A function prototype is simply the declaration of a function that specifies function’s name, parameters and return type. It doesn’t contain function body. Parameters names are optional.

Function Call:

Syntax of Function Call:

Function name (argument1, argument2);

We can use only value also. i. e. add (5, 6);

Compiler starts compilation from main () function, so to jump control from main to user defined function, have to use function call. When this function call executes, control jumps from main to that particular user defined function.

Function Definition:

Syntax of Function Definition:

returnTypefunctionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2,…)


            Body of function


When a function is called, the control of the program is transferred to the function definition. And, the compiler starts executing the codes inside the body of a function.

Passing arguments to a function:

In programming, argument refers to the variable passed to the function. In the above example, two variables a and b are passed during function call.

The parameters x and y accepts the passed arguments in the function definition. These arguments are called formal parameters of the function.

The type of arguments passed to a function and the formal parameters must match, otherwise the compiler throws error.

Return Statement :

The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns a value to the calling function. The program control is transferred to the calling function after return statement.

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