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What is use of pointer in C? tccicomputercoaching.com

What is pointer?

Pointer is a variable used to store address of another variable in programming language.

What is the use of Pointer?

The importance of pointers comes with the use of functions. For an example think you code a function to add two values and assign it to the first value. I’ll show you how to do it with and without pointers.

void-pointer-in-c

Without pointer

int adder(int a, int b){

return a+b;

}

void main()

{

int c = 5;

int d = 6;

c = adder(a,b);

}

So here no use of pointers and this method of using functions is called as call by value. Here value of c 5 and value of d 6 is passed to function  adder as a and b and return the value.

So, you should use pointers any place where you need to obtain and pass  around the address to a specific spot in memory.

Coding a data structure such as linked list. Without the use of pointers, this becomes an impossible task with C.

Pointer is used to allocate dynamic memory.

Pointers allow you to refer to the same space in memory from multiple locations. This means that you can update memory in one location and the change can be seen from another location in your program.

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What are user defined data types in c++? tccicomputercoaching.com

Data type should be used in variable declaration to restrict type to store data in memory.

There are 2 types of data type:

1. Primitive data type

2. User defined data type.

data types in c++

 

1. Primitive data type means predefined type for example integer, float , character etc.

These data type are standard type defined by C++ language.

2. User defined data type means this type is defined by user using keyword like enum or typedef etc.

A user-defined type can be a:

  • class ( a data structure with its own constructor, destructor, and functions )
  • enumeration (a distinct type whose value is restricted to a range of integer values)
  • structure (record) (structs and classes are nearly the same except: default permissions are public in structs)
  • typedef (an alias for a (perhaps complex) type name)
  • Type alias ( a name that refers to a previously defined type )
  • Pointer-to-type
    A pointer is associated with a type (of the value it points to), which is specified during declaration. A pointer can only hold an address of the declared type; it cannot hold an address of a different type.

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Navigation Bar in CSS-tccicomputercoaching.com

In simple word we can say that navigation bar is list of links in HTML. Using CSS in navigation Bar we can implement any additional styling properties and create an attractive menu bar in webpage.

learn css

A navigation bar (or navigation system) is a section of a graphical user interface intended to aid visitors in accessing information. Navigation bars are implemented in file browsers, web browsers and as a design element of some web sites.

Having easy-to-use navigation is important for any web site.

With CSS you can transform boring HTML menus into good-looking navigation bars.

There are horizonatal and verical menubar in webpage.

1. Horizontal navigation

 

2. Vertical navigation

 

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User Defined Function in C-Tccicomputercoaching.com

What is User Defined Function?

A User Defined Function is a block of code developed by user to perform specific task.

Using user Defined Function we can divide a complex problem into smaller modules. So we can decrease complexity and lengthy.

C allows programmer to define functions according to their need. These functions are known as user-defined functions. For example:

Suppose, a program which includes addition, subtraction, division and multiplication of two numbers in same program. You can create user defined functions for each operation individually to solve this problem:

c programming

For example,

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

Void add(int, int); // function prototype

Void sub (int, int); // function prototype

Void mul (int, int); // function prototype

Void div (int, int); // function prototype

void main ()

{

inta,b;

printf(“enter the value of a and b);

scanf(“%d %d”,&a,&b);

clrscr ();

add (a,b);

sub (a,b);

mul (a,b);

div (a,b);

}

Void add (int x,int y)

{

Int c;

C=x+y;

printf(“%d”,c)

}

void sub ()

{

Int c;

C=x-y;

printf (“sub=%d”,c)

}

Void mul ()

{

int c;

C=x *y;

printf (“%d”, c)

}

Void div ()

{

int c;

C=x/y;

Printf(“div=%d”,c)

}

User Defined Function has 3 sections:

Function Prototype

Function Call

Function Definition

Function prototype:

Syntax of function prototype :

returnTypefunctionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2,…);

A function prototype is simply the declaration of a function that specifies function’s name, parameters and return type. It doesn’t contain function  body. Parameters names are optional.

Function Call:

Syntax of Function Call:

Function name (argument1, argument2);

We can use only value also. i. e. add (5, 6);

Compiler starts compilation from main () function, so to jump control from main to user defined function, have to use function call. When this function call executes, control jumps from main to that particular user defined function.

Function Definition:

Syntax of Function Definition:

returnTypefunctionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2,…)

{

Body of function

}

When a function is called, the control of the program is transferred to the function definition. And, the compiler starts executing the codes insid the body of a function.

Passing arguments to a function:

In programming, argument refers to the variable passed to the function. In the above example, two variables a and b are passed during function call.

The parameters x and y accepts the passed arguments in the function definition. These arguments are called formal parameters of the function.

The type of arguments passed to a function and the formal parameters must match, otherwise the compiler throws error.

Return Statement:

The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns a value to the calling function. The program control is transferred to the calling function after return statement.


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Data Types Tccicomputercoaching.com

A data type in a programming language is a set of data with values having predefined characteristics. Examples of data types are: integer, floating point unit number, character, string, and pointer. Usually, a limited number of such data types come built into a language.

When we write source code, compiler have to convert that source code into machine code. The data used in source code have to be differentiating as digit, real number or text
(alphabetical) for compiler information. So, data are categorized as per their type. These data type have size, as per this size they have allocated memory.

data types

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification identifying one of various types of data, such as real, integer or Boolean, that determines the possible values for that type, the operations that can be done on
values of that type, the meaning of the data, and the way values of that type can be stored.

Common data types include:

Integers

Booleans

Characters

Floating-point numbers

The type void

The type specifier void indicates that no value is available.

Primitive Types:

A basic type is a data type provided by a programming language as a basic building block. Most languages allow more complicated composite types to be recursively constructed starting from basic types.

A built-in type is a data type for which the programming language provides built-in support.

Type Storage size Value range
char 1 byte -128 to 127 or 0 to 255
unsigned char 1 byte 0 to 255
signed char 1 byte -128 to 127
int 2 or 4 bytes
-32,768 to 32,767 or -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
unsigned int 2 or 4 bytes 0 to 65,535 or 0 to 4,294,967,295
short 2 bytes -32,768 to 32,767
unsigned short 2 bytes 0 to 65,535
long 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
unsigned long 4 bytes 0 to 4,294,967,295

Composite types

Composite types are derived from more than one primitive type. This can be done in a number of ways. The ways they are combined are called data structures. Composing a primitive type into a compound type generally results in a new type, e.g. array-of-integer is a different type to integer.

An array stores a number of elements of the same type in a specific order. They are accessed randomly using an integer to specify which element is required (although the elements may be of almost any type). Arrays may be fixed-length or expandable.

A list is similar to an array, but its contents are strung together by a series of references to the next element.

Record (also called tuple or struct) Records are among the simplest data structures. A record is a value that contains other values, typically in fixed number and sequence and typically indexed by names. The elements of records are usually called fields or members.

Union. A union type definition will specify which of a number of permitted primitive types may be stored in its instances, e.g. “float or long integer”. Contrast with a record, which could be defined to contain a float and an integer; whereas, in a union, there is only one type allowed at a time.

A tagged union (also called a variant, variant record, discriminated union, or disjoint union) contains an additional field indicating its current type, for enhanced type safety.

A set is an abstract data structure that can store certain values, without any particular order, and no repeated values. Values themselves are not retrieved from sets, rather one tests a value for membership to obtain a Boolean “in” or “not in”.

An object contains a number of data fields, like a record, and also a number of subroutines for accessing or modifying them, called methods.

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Where C++ is used today? tccicomputercoaching.com

C++ is an object-oriented programming language and incorporates all the features offered by C.

C++ for performance computing.

c++ learning

C++ is used for almost everything these days, from creating GUI’s, machine control, IoT, even back end.

Real Applications of C++:

1. Games:

C++ overrides the complexities of 3D games, optimizes resource management and facilitates multiplayer with networking.

2. Graphic User Interface (GUI) based applications:

Many highly used applications, such as Image Ready, Adobe Premier, Photoshop and Illustrator, are scripted in C++.

3. Web Browsers:

With the introduction of specialized languages such as PHP and Java, the adoption of C++ is limited for scripting of websites and web applications.

4. Advance Computations and Graphics:

C++ provides the means for building applications requiring real-time physical simulations, high-performance image processing, and mobile sensor applications.

5. Database Software:

The software forms the backbone of a variety of database-based enterprises, such as Google, Wikipedia, Yahoo and YouTube etc.

6. Operating Systems:

C++ forms an integral part of many of the prevalent operating systems including Apple’s OS X .

7. Enterprise Software:

C++ finds a purpose in banking and trading enterprise applications, such as those deployed by Bloomberg and Reuters.

8. Medical and Engineering Applications:

Many advanced medical equipments, such as MRI machines, use C++ language for scripting their software.

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What is the use of Digital Electronics? tccicomputercoaching.com

Digital Electronics is an Electronics that uses binary numbers of 1 and 0 to represent information. Today, numerous devices are digital including a smart phone, tablet and smart watch. This will include following topics:

Electrical

  • Number System and Representation :
  • Programs :
  • Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates :
  • Gate Level Minimization :
  • Combinational Logic Circuits :
  • Flip-Flops and Sequential Circuits :
  • Register and Counters :
  • Memory and Programmable Logic :

Almost all devices we use on a daily basis make use of digital electronics in some capacity. Digital electronics simply refers to any kind of circuit  that uses digital signals rather than analogue. It is constructed using circuits calls logic gates, each of which performs a different function.

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student of any University in Ahmedabad. We have experienced and qualified faculty who help student to get good result in the Examination.

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