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What is the Basic Networking Terminology?

Computers running on the Internet communicate to each other using either the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

basic termology

The widely used networking terminologies are given below:

1) IP Address

IP address is a unique number assigned to a node of a network e.g. . It is composed of octets that range from 0 to 255.

It is a logical address that can be changed.

2) Protocol

A protocol is a set of rules basically that is followed for communication. For example:

  • TCP
  • FTP
  • Telnet
  • SMTP
  • POP etc.

3) Port Number

The port number is used to uniquely identify different applications. It acts as a communication endpoint between applications.

The port number is associated with the IP address for communication between two applications.

The TCP and UDP protocols use ports to map incoming data to a particular process running on a computer.

4) MAC Address

MAC (Media Access Control) Address is a unique identifier of NIC (Network Interface Controller). A network node can have multiple NIC but each with unique MAC.

5) TCP-UDP: Connection-oriented and connection-less protocol

In connection-oriented protocol, acknowledgement is sent by the receiver. So it is reliable but slow. The example of connection-oriented protocol is TCP.

But, in connection-less protocol, acknowledgement is not sent by the receiver. So it is not reliable but fast. The example of connection-less protocol is UDP.

6) Socket

A socket is an endpoint between two way communication.

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