Computers running on the Internet communicate to each other using either the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
The widely used networking terminologies are given below:
1) IP Address
IP address is a unique number assigned to a node of a network e.g. 192.168.0.1 . It is composed of octets that range from 0 to 255.
It is a logical address that can be changed.
A protocol is a set of rules basically that is followed for communication. For example:
- POP etc.
3) Port Number
The port number is used to uniquely identify different applications. It acts as a communication endpoint between applications.
The port number is associated with the IP address for communication between two applications.
The TCP and UDP protocols use ports to map incoming data to a particular process running on a computer.
4) MAC Address
MAC (Media Access Control) Address is a unique identifier of NIC (Network Interface Controller). A network node can have multiple NIC but each with unique MAC.
5) TCP-UDP: Connection-oriented and connection-less protocol
In connection-oriented protocol, acknowledgement is sent by the receiver. So it is reliable but slow. The example of connection-oriented protocol is TCP.
But, in connection-less protocol, acknowledgement is not sent by the receiver. So it is not reliable but fast. The example of connection-less protocol is UDP.
A socket is an endpoint between two way communication.
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