Computers are connected with each other to share information and resources. They can exchange information and files with each other.
“A network consists of two or more computers those are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. “
In information technology, networking Course is the construction, design, and use of a network, including the physical (cabling, hub, bridge, switch, router, and so forth), the selection and use of telecommunication protocol and computer software for using and managing the network, and the establishment of operation policies and procedures related to the network.
There are many types of computer networks, including the following:
local-area networks (LANs): The computers are geographically close together (i.e. in the same building).
wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base.
metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city.
home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user’s home that connects a person’s digital devices.
Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers.
Some Basic Terminology used in Networking:
Topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. See the Network topology diagrams in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia.
Protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network.
Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.
The Importance of Network Standards
Network standards are important to ensure that hardware and software can work together. Without standards you could not easily develop a network to share information.
Following is the list of hardware’s required to setup a computer network.
Internal Network Cards
External Network Cards
Server: a server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers.
Client: A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship who request to server to do some process. For example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web.
For example, banking system also use client server model, in which the client request to server to do any process related to transaction, the server fulfils a request made by a client and respond to client.
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